Introduction to picture sharing and design principles for public facilities

Introduction to picture sharing and design principles for public facilities

[ Huaqiang Security Network News ]
Public facilities refer to public buildings or equipment provided by the government or other social organizations for use or enjoyment by the public. They can be divided into education, health care, culture and entertainment, transportation, sports, social welfare and security according to specific project characteristics. Administrative management and community services, postal telecommunications and commercial financial services.
Definition and classification of public facilities
A public facility is a public good or equipment that is provided by the government and that is owned or used by the public. According to economics, public facilities are public goods provided by public governments. In terms of sociology, public facilities are facilities that meet people's public needs (such as convenience, security, participation) and public space choices, such as public administration facilities, public information facilities, public health facilities, public sports facilities, public cultural facilities, public Transportation facilities, public education facilities, public green facilities, public housing, etc. Urban public facilities are different from rural public facilities. Specifically, urban public facilities refer to urban sewage treatment systems, urban garbage (including manure) treatment systems, urban roads, urban bridges, ports, municipal facilities, emergency repairs, city squares, urban street lights. , road signs, urban air defense facilities, urban greening, urban scenic spots, urban parks, etc. Urban public facilities are charged or not, and there are charges and no charges. From the spatial layout, there are three types of city-wide public facilities, regional public facilities, and neighborhood public facilities.

Public facilities pictures
Public facilities pictures
Principles of public facility design
Usability principle
“A merchandiser will throw the biscuits under your feet, and you have to bend down to pick up the broken goods – no doubt, in this case, you will be very angry and express your anger. Come out, but when the vending machine does this, ....." It is clear that many public facilities with clear product attributes lack the ability to "can be easily and effectively used." We sometimes have to wait in front of the ATM The old man in the front repeated the wrong operation again and again, and could not help. This is the problem caused by the lack of ease of use of public facilities. Usability is a popular term for “(product) is easy to use or how easy to use”. It is a principle problem that must be considered when designing a public facility with clear functions. For example, the design of the trash can opening should take into account the waterproof function, and it cannot make the throwing of the garbage difficult, or people use the ATM. How can I no longer use the password confirmation method that is easy to forget, how can I remember to retrieve the bank card after the operation is completed. These are the principles of ease of use that should be considered when designing a public facility.
Safety principle
The author once asked students questions in the public facilities design course: “If children play in the square, they are inadvertently injured by some public facilities (such as the metal armrests of public seats and the side fences of public telephone booths). Then, should the responsibility for such accidental injury be attributed to the designer or the user (here specifically referred to as the child)?" Most students think that the responsibility should be caused by the child’s playfulness or the lack of care of the parents. Only a few students think that It is caused by the designer's design omission, and the author agrees with the views of a few students. As a public facility in the setting and public environment, the design must take into account any behavior that may occur during the use of the participants and users. The nature of the child is to play and play, which cannot be changed, but can be changed by children. As a measure of height, public facilities below this height should take into account the safety of materials, structures, processes and forms. At the beginning of the design, the safety hazards caused to users should be avoided as much as possible. This is the safety of public facilities design. The principle of sex.
Systematic principle
Usually, trash cans should be placed in public rest areas or around public seats, and the number of trash cans should match the number of public seats. Too much waste will be caused, and too little will induce The behavior of discarding garbage at will. It can be seen that there is a certain matching relationship between the public seat and the trash can. Another example is the relatively concentrated public lighting around the fitness facilities, which serves to guide the crowd. The lack of such centralized lighting facilities, due to lack of guidance, security and interactivity, is relatively low at night. In fact, not only that, but also public facilities such as sanitation, leisure facilities, convenience facilities, and fitness facilities, there is a natural matching relationship between them and their internals. This relationship can be summarized as systematic in design. in principle.
Aesthetic principle
As mentioned above, public facilities play an important role in promoting the appearance of the city appearance. The well-functioning and elegant public facilities meet the functional needs and also have the function of aesthetic education. Therefore, the aesthetics of public facilities design can not be ignored. After all, there is no irreconcilable contradiction between good function and beautiful appearance. A well-designed and aesthetically pleasing public facility can not only effectively increase the frequency of its use, but also It can enhance the public's awareness of public facilities, protect the public environment, and enhance citizens' sense of belonging and participation in the city. After all, the civilized public environment should also be a beautiful public environment.
Unique principle
Some scholars do not classify public facilities into the category of industrial design. The main reason is that industrial design has the characteristics of machine and mass production. The design of public facilities often adopts the characteristics of special design and small batch production, which has similarities with the characteristics of environmental design. Therefore, more public facilities design is regarded as a continuation of environmental design. In fact, with the advancement of contemporary processing technology and production technology, the mass production of early industrial design is shifting to today's "humanized" and "personalized" small batch production methods. The factors of “person” and “environment” in the design have been placed in a prominent position to consider, which is consistent with the basic characteristics of public facilities design. The principle of uniqueness of public facilities design is that designers should provide different solutions to the same facilities according to the cultural background, geographical environment, city size and other factors, so that they can better serve the environment. The place is merged.
Fairness principle
Unlike private property products, public facilities emphasize more on the equality of participation and fairness in use. The main manifestation is that public facilities should be restricted by factors such as gender, age, cultural background and education level, and be used fairly by all users. This is the fundamental difference between public facilities and private property products. The principle of fairness is expressed in the design as the Universal Design principle or the Inclusive Design principle. In China, more expressions are “accessible design”. Since 1967, more use in Europe. The phrase "Design for all". In fact, it is incomplete to simply understand the meaning of barrier-free design by simply understanding the facilities used by people with behavioral disabilities, such as blind roads and ramps in public facilities. This design principle should be applied to all public products, including in any public facility, the designer should be specific, in-depth and meticulous in the behavior of users of different genders, ages, cultural backgrounds and living habits. Differences and psychological feelings, not just “special” care for people with behavioral disabilities, the elderly, children or women.
Rationality principle
The rationality principle of public facilities design can be basically expressed as two aspects: functional moderation and material rationality. The so-called functional moderation mainly means that the public facilities alone should not induce the user to give other functions while satisfying their basic functions. Take the public seat as an example: the main function of the public seat is to provide the necessary rest for the walker or the occupant in the public space, but the level of this "rest" is "sit" rather than "sleeping". Unfortunately, the length of the public seats in many cities is designed to be more than 150 cm, and there is no armrest partition in the middle. Such seats often become trampods, which not only do not meet the needs of ordinary citizens. On the contrary, it has a negative impact on the surrounding environment. The so-called material rationality mainly means that the cost of public facilities should be compared with the general income level of the people. Designers should give priority to the use of low-cost, easy-to-process and durable materials to avoid conspicuousness by accumulating expensive materials. Visual effects. Deliberate destruction of public facilities exists in any city, but the probability of occurrence is different. The quality of the citizens should not be an excuse for designers to evade responsibility. It turns out that many cities have replaced the cast iron sewer manhole cover with cement material for theft of the manhole cover. The behavior is clearly contained, and this example effectively proves how important the rationality of the material is to protect public facilities from vandalism.
Environmental principle
Since the 1980s, ecological and environmental issues have gradually become the focus of attention. In the field of design, there has also been a “green design” that advocates environmental protection, such as Victor Papanac’s 1971 book. DESIGN for REAL WORLD (Human Ecology and Social Change) and "Green Words for the Real World" (THE DREEN IMPERATIVE - Natural Design For The Real World) Two books have made important contributions to the development of green design. The three principles of green design are referred to as "3R", that is, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. It has been widely used in most design fields. Public facilities should also implement the principle of green design. This is by no means a problem that can be solved by designing several classified trash cans. It requires designers to have a comprehensive understanding of material selection, facility structure, production process, use and disposal of facilities. Consider the principles of resource conservation and environmental protection.
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